What you need to know about normal 13 week ultrasound, pregnancy ultrasounds.

Hello my friends, I hope you all are having an amazing year so far, welcome back to another post, this time we are talking about 13 week pregnancy, as usual all the ultrasound images with explanations will be starting halfway on the post.

OK my friend let me congratulate you if you get here, that means that you reach the last week of your first trimester, very exciting I know.


How Big your Baby at 13 Weeks?

At 13 weeks pregnant, the baby is as big as a Lemon. The average fetus at 13 weeks is about 6.6 cm to 7.9 cm on the CRL measurement, your baby is about 2.9 inches long and weighs about 0.81 ounces, his or her head is about 1/3 the size of the body compared to 1/2 that was before. At this point, your baby has all his or her important organs developed already, his or her main job is to keep on growing.

13 weeks pregnant symptoms.

Well dear, I have good news for you, at this point, your symptoms are a lot less, so you might start noticing more energy throughout the day and less nausea and other symptoms.

Increase in energy: You finally made it to the beginning of the second trimester which is known as the least symptomatic and the most energetic of the pregnancy. As you start to feel more like yourself and get that energy back, you probably want to start getting ready for your bundle of joy arrival, I know, shopping is good therapy, even for me lol. Also, you now have the energy to get back to a fitness routine. Exercise will benefit you and your baby as well and can even make labor easier when the time comes.

Increased sex drive: If you are one of the lucky ones who experience this symptom don’t get stress out if you start feeling mild uterine cramping after orgasms and/or mild post-coital spotting when you have intercourse, keep in mind that a little spotting is normal simply because your cervix is more sensitive. But heavy bleeding (like a period) isn’t, so call your doctor if it is more like a bright red flow.

You might still feel other mild symptoms occasionally, give yourself time and love, some of those random symptoms are listed below:

  • occasional abdominal pain or back pain.

  • visible veins.

  • constipation, bloating or gases.

  • difficult sleeping or feeling out of breath.

  • the appearance of stretch marks in abdomen, hips and buttocks.

  • occasional dizziness.

  • mood swings.

  • pregnancy cravings or increased appetite.

  • vaginal discharge.

As usual, I will link the most recent previous post down here in case you want to check them out.

What you need to know about the normal 12 week ultrasound.

What you need to know about normal 11 week ultrasound.

What to expect on your 13 week ultrasound!!!!

OK so first let me tell you that by now you probably have all your first trimester regular ultrasounds done, the Nuchal translucency is done at week 12, I explain more in deep about nuchal translucency on my previous post, so unless there is an abnormal symptom like pain, spotting/bleeding, you are not due for any ultrasounds until week 18 to 20 for the Fetal Anatomy scan ( on this ultrasound you will find out the gender of your baby, how exciting is that?)

Is still better to do this Ultrasound Transvaginally to get better pictures however some medical offices perform this ultrasound Transabdominally as well.


Ultrasound image of the profile view of a baby, on the 13 week ultrasound arms and legs are already defined, the bone structures of the face are seen, the rib cage, heart beating, and spine are also clearly seen, major organs are formed and starting to work at this time.


The required measurement at this time is still the CRL.


Ultrasound image of the doppler on the heart. The heartbeat expected to be seen today is between 130 to 175 bpm.



Ultrasound image of the fetal face, you can see the orbits of the eyes, nasal bones and more defined bone structure of the face.


Ultrasound image showing defined fetal legs extended on the left side of the screen.

At 13 weeks on the gestational sac there are changes occurring too, we are going to evaluate the amnion and the placenta as well, that at this time is already fully developed.


Ultrasound image of a Posterior Placenta.


Ultrasound image of an Anterior Placenta.

The position of the placenta can vary but has no specific meaning, as long as is not Previa is all good.



Ultrasound image of monoamniotic-monochorionic twin pregnancy.

If no abnormal findings occur on the 13 week scan, we proceed to the next appointments, more testing is still required even in normal pregnancies, but so far you are doing great.

OK guys, I decided to do at the end of the first trimester a blog about Abnormal first trimester ultrasounds, because I want to focus on the joy of the normal first trimester ultrasounds but I also want to provide some information to the mommies that are dealing with some abnormalities on the pregnancy, is not easy to keep this blogs sweet and simple when there are so much to discuss about chromosomal and genetic disorders, I will talk more in deep about that on the post next week, as you probably noticed I will be posting now every Wednesday instead of twice a week, I hope you guys understand.


As usual, I want to thank you for staying until the end, I see next time.

Zadi xo.








What you need to know about normal 12 week ultrasound, pregnancy ultrasounds.

Hi guys, welcome back to another post, I hope you all have an amazing new year so far and beautiful holidays, you must be very excited if you reach 12 weeks, girl you are about to finish the first trimester, eyyyy….

So as usual on this article, you will find good info about your 12 week pregnancy plus how and what to expect on your 12 week Ultrasound, if you want to learn something cool today keep reading.


Things are changing rapidly at 12 weeks, your hormones are likely to tone things down a bit, hopefully making you feel better about your pregnancy symptoms. It also means you may be ready to share your pregnancy news with family and friends, finally the moment of truth.

How Big Is Baby at 12 Weeks?
At 12 weeks pregnant, the baby is as big as a plum. The average fetus at 12 weeks is about 5.4 cm to 6.6 cm on the CRL measurement. Now at this point, your baby has all his or her important organs developed already, his or her main job is to keep on growing.



12 weeks pregnant symptoms.

As your hormones start to calm a bit, your morning sickness and fatigue may start to feel better as well, however headaches and dizziness may replace them. Here’s more info about what’s happening to your body at 12 weeks pregnant:

Headaches: These may start to intensify around week 12 of pregnancy. Headaches may be caused by hormonal shifts, drops in blood sugar, dehydration, lack of sleep, or stress. To deal with this pay attention to what might be triggering your headaches and try to avoid those things. If you notice a drastic increase in headaches or a type of headache you’ve never experienced before (such as a migraine), let your OB know.

Spotting: Spotting or bleeding during pregnancy at 12 weeks could be something or it could be nothing at all, it could be something as silly as a polyp in the cervix or a cyst in the ovary, the simple fact of having sex could cause light bleeding that’s harmless, however its always good to check, so If you’re experiencing spotting or bleeding, definitely tell your doctor. If the bleeding is accompanied by cramping or the flow is heavy then it can be serious, call your doctor right away.

Dizziness: Hormone shifts and blood pressure changes could cause dizziness at week 12. You can help prevent this symptom by snacking frequently and drinking plenty of water. if the dizziness doesn’t let you function or you start feeling other weird things let your doctor know.

Increased vaginal discharge: This clear discharge might seem gross to you, but it’s normal and has an important purpose, to protect your vagina from infection. But if you have yellow, greenish, pink, or brown discharge during pregnancy week 12, call your doctor immediately. Those colors could be a sign of infection or preterm labor.

As usual, I will link the most recent previous post down here in case you want to check them out.

What you need to know about the normal 11 week ultrasound.

What you need to know about the normal 10 week ultrasound.

And now the juicy stuff ” What to expect on your 12 week ultrasound scan”

We still perform this Ultrasound Transvaginally, starting with Mommy first then the baby.


Ultrasound image of the CRL, the measurement that we perform on the baby at this time.


Ultrasound image of a baby in which you can define clearly the profile view of the face, the body and the leg, how cute is that!!!!


The profile view of your baby’s face is becoming more clear and clear as he or she keeps growing!!!


Ultrasound image of your baby’s strong heartbeat, the normal beat expected to trace at this time is between 160 to 175 bpm.



OMG, I couldn’t resist to include another picture of the fetal profile, this picture is just precious!!!


Ultrasound image showing a defined hand.


As well as the legs are clearly defined at this point.


3D image of a 12 week baby, you can appreciate this picture, the baby’s head, arms, and legs, the insertion of the umbilical cord as well.


Guys, I receive a lot of questions about having 3D ultrasounds, Ultrasound, in general, is a very safe imaging technique for mom and baby and a valuable tool for the doctors to evaluate the development and growth of your baby,  however 3D is not recommended to have more than 4 on the entire pregnancy, because intense sound waves are used in 3D or 4D ultrasounds so is higher the amount of heat produced on this type of ultrasounds, so is better to do it when is medically necessary, and the best time to obtain the best pictures are between  26-32 weeks of pregnancy.


Facts about your baby!!!

*Baby at 12 weeks is opening and closing his or her fingers and curling toes. And baby’s brain is still developing fast!

*Baby’s now developing reflexes, you’ll likely see movement on ultrasounds.

*The fetus begins to produce thyroid hormones.

*The pancreas is beginning to make insulin, and the kidneys are starting to produce urine as well.


Already so this concludes this week post, by now you are probably done with the first round of genetic and chromosomal testing, you still should expect other labs on the doctors appointments, by now you are only required to visit your doctor once a month unless there is a medical condition that they need to monitor closely, as always thanks for reading my post, I will be talking to you next time.

zadi, XO


What you need to know about normal 11 week ultrasound, pregnancy ultrasounds.

Hi there , I hope you all have an amazing Christmas, as you can see on the title I will be explaining all about one of the most important ultrasounds on your baby, the 11 week one, in which we will be talking about the Nuchal Translucency as well, if you want to learn how your baby is developing at 11 weeks stay with me, as usual, all ultrasound images regarding this topic will be on the middle of the post…


At 11 weeks your baby is as big as a Lime, measuring about 4.1 to 5.2 cm long and weighing about 0.25 ounces.


Some of the most common 11 Weeks Pregnant Symptoms are:

Fatigue: Even though you are still under the effects of many hormones you are feeling some of your energy coming back slowly. Until then, give yourself permission to kick back and get some extra rest.

Skin darkening.: Well is about time for you to start noticing a dark line down the center your belly, this is a totally normal pregnancy symptom called the linea nigra. This dark line is caused by hormonal changes and is not permanent, even though you might notice that it stays for a while after you give birth, especially if you breastfeed.

Mood swings: Girl try anything and everything that keeps you calm and happy you really need it right now and remember if is possible, avoid stressful situations.

Leg cramps: The cause of leg cramps are not fully known, however, they can be caused by reduced levels of calcium or increased levels of phosphorus in the blood, leg cramps are painful involuntary muscle contractions that typically affects the calf, foot or both and  are more common at night in the second and third trimester. Drinking plenty of water can prevent leg cramps, and so can stretching your legs during the day. You also want to take a look at your diet to be sure you’re getting enough potassium and magnesium.

Nausea. Should be getting better by now but you still feeling some here and there, be patient, some moms to find relieve taking natural remedies like ginger tea.

Vaginal discharge:  Remember this substance is simply nature’s way of getting rid of bacteria. If it’s colored, tinged with blood, has a foul odor, or causes discomfort to call your doctor for a check-up.

Links for my previous posts are down below in case you want to check them out to see more about other weeks ultrasounds or symptoms.

What you need to know about the normal 10 week ultrasound.

What you need to know about the normal 9 week ultrasound.

What to expect on your 11 week ultrasound scan:

As usual, we start with the maternal organs first then the baby…
Remember the 11 weeks scan is still done transvaginally.


At 11 weeks your baby should look more like a human being, legs are clearly seen, the amnion is clearly seen, and the placenta is almost developed completely.


Another view of how your baby should look like, the ultrasound image shows the fetal head, arms, abdomen, and legs.


Can we take a moment to appreciate the most cutest thing you are going to see today, this is how your baby’s legs should look like.


Ultrasound image of the Doppler of the fetal heart.

Normal Nuchal Translucency.

And now let’s talk about nuchal translucency ultrasound shall we?

Nuchal translucency (NT) is the sonographic appearance of a collection of fluid under the skin behind the fetal neck in the first trimester of pregnancy. In fetuses with chromosomal abnormalities, cardiac defects, and many genetic syndromes the NT thickness is increased.

How is the nuchal translucency measurement done:

*The gestational period must be 11 weeks to 13 weeks and 6 days.
*The fetal crown-rump length should be between 45 mm to 84 mm.
*The magnification of the image should be as follow, the fetal head and thorax occupy the whole screen.
*The presence of the nasal bone, the rectangular shape of the palate anteriorly, the translucent diencephalon in the Centre and the nuchal membrane posteriorly are crucial to take an accurate measurement of the NT.

*Fetal head should not be extended or flexed.
*The fetus should be in a neutral position, with the head in line with the spine. A deviation of this position can lead to false positive or negative of the test.
*Is important to distinguish between fetal skin and amnion to avoid errors.
*The widest part of translucency must always be measured.
*During the scan more than one measurement must be taken and the maximum one that meets all the above criteria should be recorded in the database.

*A value of less than 2.2-2.8 mm is considered normal which means not associated with high risk.

IMG_3796-1       Normal NT.

The blood tests that are combined with the NT on the first trimester screening to rule out genetic and chromosomal diseases are:
*Free BhCG (beta human chorionic gonadotrophin)
*PAPP-A (pregnancy-associated plasma protein A).
The level of these proteins is known to change with certain conditions including chromosome abnormalities.

How the abnormal NT looks on Ultrasound??


Ultrasound image of an Abnormal NT measurement, as you can see on this image the NT was measuring 5.9 mm.

What’s next if you have an abnormal NT??

If your risk is increased then further testing (such as CVS or amniocentesis) should be considered.

Chorionic villus sampling (CVS) is a prenatal test that is used to detect birth defects, genetic diseases, and other problems during pregnancy. During the test, a small sample of cells (called chorionic villi) is taken from the placenta where it attaches to the wall of the uterus.

Amniocentesis is a prenatal test in which a small amount of amniotic fluid is removed from the sac surrounding the fetus for testing. The sample of amniotic fluid (less than one ounce) is removed through a fine needle inserted into the uterus through the abdomen, under ultrasound guidance. The fluid is then sent to a laboratory for analysis. Different tests can be performed on a sample of amniotic fluid, depending on the genetic risk and indication for the test.

Both of these tests have risks you should talk to your doctor if you have any concerns.

OK, guys so this is the shortest way to get you the most important things happening at 11 weeks, with all of this testing you probably need a Baby Moon right now lol, you deserve it…

On my next post, we will continue with the weekly Pregnancy Ultrasounds, I see you there, as usual, thanks for staying till the end.

Zadi XO








What you need to know about normal 10 week ultrasound, pregnancy ultrasounds.

Hi guys, welcome back to another post, this time about Normal 10 week ultrasound, as usual, I will talk about the important things you need to know at this time and finally we will go to the Ultrasound part, so let’s get started…

At 10 weeks your baby is as big as a strawberry, measuring about 3.1 to 4.1 cm long and weighing about 0.14 ounces.


10 weeks pregnant symptoms.

Wondering what to expect at 10 weeks pregnant? As your baby grows, your ligaments and muscles are starting to stretch on your pregnant belly, your breasts are getting bigger, they are probably sore too and some other changes are also happening. Here are some of the most common 10 weeks pregnant symptoms:

Morning sickness: Still strong at 10 weeks, morning sickness is caused by high levels of hormones in your body, this symptom gets better after you pass the first trimester.

Fatigue: Remember that you are under the effects of many hormones, especially increased levels of progesterone that is responsible for making you sleepy and also your body is producing more blood to carry nutrients to your growing baby, therefore, your blood pressure and blood sugar levels are lower, the best remedy for this symptom is more REST.

Mood swings: Because of the hormones and also because other symptoms, you may find your emotions more difficult to control. Remember is okay to slow down and take breaks throughout your day ( to do whatever makes you feel good and relax), also try to avoid stressful situations.

Round ligament pain: At this time you start feeling some aches and pains in your abdomen as it stretches to accommodate your growing baby. While some moms-to-be don’t really feel this pain for other mothers is very uncomfortable. If you’re 10 weeks pregnant with twins, round ligament pain could be even more noticeable. Let your OB doctor know if your discomfort is intense.

Growing breasts. Your breasts have probably gotten bigger by this time since they’ve been prepping for breastfeeding for weeks already!

Increased vaginal discharge. An increased blood flow to your vagina coupled with an increase in estrogen production could cause more of clear, odorless discharge. Might seem a little gross, but this substance is simply nature’s way of getting rid of bacteria. If it’s colored, tinged with blood, has a foul odor, or causes discomfort call your doctor. Those could be something else.

Visible veins: Another thing you may start noticing at this time is all those blue lines that suddenly has appeared on your skin, these veins are doing a very important job which is carrying the increased blood supply needed to nourish your growing fetus.

Other symptoms discussed on my previous post like Frequent urination and Headaches, combined with other symptoms like indigestion, bloating and gases are also happening right now, be patient, I promised it will be better soon, links for my previous posts are down below in case you want to check them out.

What you need to know about the normal 8 week ultrasound.

What you need to know about the normal 9 week ultrasound.

What to expect on your 10 week ultrasound scan:

As usual, we start with the maternal organs first then is baby time…

Remember the 10 weeks scan is still done transvaginally.


Ultrasound image of a fetus at 10 weeks, the round area surrounding the baby is called the Amnion, this structure is more visible at this time, placenta is still developing, yolk sac is visible at this time as well, your fetus is starting to look more like a baby, arms and legs are clearly seen, and movements are more noticeable too.


Ultrasound image of a 10 week fetus, the measurement that is done at this time is still the Crump Rump Length(CRL)


And remember we always need to get a signal on the doppler, that’s the heart of your baby beating!!!!!


 Image of a 3D ultrasound on a 10 week fetus.


Ultrasound image of Fraternal twins at 10 weeks, you can see the thick membrane separating the babies.


Ultrasound image of Identical twins at 10 weeks, these babies share the same sac.

Remember the possibility of a Miscarriage is still high, Ultrasound will always check for Subchorionic bleedings or any other abnormalities, after ultrasounds you should be seeing your doctor for the results.

Facts about your baby!!!

At 10 weeks your baby has working arm joints, and cartilage and bones are forming. Your baby’s vital organs are fully developed and they’re starting to function as well. Fingernails and hair are starting to appear too! And your baby is already swallowing and kicking inside your belly!!!

At 10 weeks you will start having genetic testing to rule out diseases, the first test will be the Harmony, this test analyzes cell-free DNA in maternal blood and gives a strong indication of whether the fetus is at high or low risk of having trisomy 21 (Down syndrome), trisomy 18 (Edwards syndrome) or trisomy 13 (Patau syndrome). If the Harmony test shows that there is a high risk that the fetus has trisomy 21 or 18 or 13 it does not mean that the fetus definitely has one of these defects. If you want to be certain if the fetus has one of these defects you should have CVS or amnio.

I will explain more in deep CVS , AMNIO and Nuchal Translucency on my next post which will be published next Thursday because Tuesday will be Christmas day, I wish all my readers and followers a very Merry Christmas, thanks for being with me in this new adventure, I hope to have you around next year and the following years to come, Next post will be Normal 11 week Ultrasound, I see you there….

IMG_3222A picture of me and my family on Christmas last year!!!!

XO Zadi.

What you need to know about normal 9 week ultrasound, pregnancy ultrasounds.

Hi guys, before I start this post I want to take a minute to thank all my readers and followers for the love and support, I really appreciate all of you, remember that my goal with this blog  is to serve and inform and I will keep bringing you good and quality content that you can rely on, thank you again and welcome!!!!

OK, so as you can see today I will be talking about ” Normal 9 week ultrasound”, what to expect, what you are going to see on the ultrasound scan etc…

If you haven’t seen my last post, I will link it down below for you.

What you need to know about the normal 8 week ultrasound.


OK so let’s start with the juicy stuff, shall we???

At 9 weeks your baby is about the size of a Cherry, in measurements that will be about 2.3 to 3.0 cm long, and the weight will be about 0.07 ounces.

9 weeks pregnant symptoms.

Expect that at this time the pregnancy hormone HCG is circulating through your body at its highest level. That means at 9 weeks, some pregnancy symptoms may be more severe. Don’t worry in a few more weeks your hormones will start leveling out a bit, leaving you feeling a little more like yourself. Here are what the symptoms at 9 weeks feel like:

  • Fatigue: Because of your hormones are working overtime to grow and develop your 9 week fetus you are probably feeling with zero energy. The remedy for this is Sleep more if you can, and keep your blood sugar stable by snacking continuously throughout the day in a healthy way.

  • Morning sickness: A high percentage of pregnant women experience morning sickness. If you are 9 weeks pregnant with twins, you may have more severe symptoms. The bad news is that at 9 weeks, morning sickness is likely to be at its worst, the good news is that is about to get better soon. Therefore you can try different things to see what makes you feel better, many moms-to-be find that ginger tea, frequent small meals and snacks, and vitamin B6 help ease nausea.

  • Mood swings: Because of all the hormones and also because other symptoms such as nausea and fatigue are bothering you, you may find your emotions more difficult to control. Remember is okay to slow down and take breaks (do whatever makes you feel good and relax), and try to avoid stressful situations.

  • Frequent urination: Because your uterus is growing and because the blood flow to your pelvic area is increased, you may be going to the bathroom more often than you did before pregnancy. Don’t let that urge to stop you from drinking a lot of water. It’s important that you stay hydrated at all times.

  • Headaches: Due to high levels of hormones you can experience headaches, this symptom can also be the result of dehydration, caffeine withdrawal, hunger, lack of sleep or stress. You can make it better by eating often, getting good sleep, and drinking lots of water. Before you take any medication check with your doctor first.

What to expect on your 9 week ultrasound scan:

As usual, we start with the maternal organs first then is baby time…

Remember the 9 weeks scan is still done transvaginally.


Ultrasound image of 9 weeks fetus, at this time your baby shows defined arms and legs, still small but more clear to see now, you can also expect to see movements during the scan.

You still see on the ultrasound the amnion and the yolk sac, the placenta is not formed yet, you can check this link for deep info about yolk sac and amnion.

Normal first trimester ultrasound, scan at 6 weeks of gestation.


Ultrasound image of the measurement that is done at this time, the Crump rump length.


And very important Doppler of the heart showing a strong signal, expect the heartbeat to be higher at this time, usually from 150 to 175 bpm approximately.

Remember the possibility of a Miscarriage is still high, Ultrasound will always check for Subchorionic bleedings or any other abnormalities, after ultrasounds you should be seeing your doctor for the results, Subchorionic bleedings are not to worry but is important to take precautions like NO heavy lifting and take it easy for a while.

Fun facts about your baby!!!

At this time your Baby is not considered an embryo anymore now he or she is a fetus! These two terms define different phases of development. The embryonic phase is about forming major organs, including the brain, heart,  lungs, arms, and legs. Once you’ve got a fetus, those organs and parts are formed and are now growing and developing.
At this time also your baby is developing more distinct facial features and getting more cuter than what already is, also the heartbeat is starting to get stronger, the levels now should be 150 to 175 beats per minute.

What to expect on this appointment.

Other prenatal tests you can expect around 9 weeks pregnant include blood work to test for hormone levels, blood type, white and red blood cell counts, and certain diseases. You’ll also have a pap smear to check for abnormalities on the cervix if you are seeing the doctor for the first time on this visit, checking for signs of cervical cancer or STDs, and a urine test to check protein levels and sugar levels to rule out gestational diabetes and preeclampsia respectively.

OK, guys thanks for staying with me until the end, on my next post I will be talking about 10 week ultrasound, thank you for the love and support on my blog, I will love to have you back…

XO Zadi.

What you need to know about normal 8 week ultrasound, pregnancy ultrasounds.

Hi guys, welcome back to another post, today as you can see on the title, the topic will be ” Normal 8 week Ultrasound”. Well let me guess, you are 8 weeks pregnant now and you still don’t believe it because your belly is not showing and you don’t fell the baby kicks, I know, but what if I tell you that miracles are happening inside your womb at this moment, stay with me to find out…


In case you want to see my previous post about Normal 7 week ultrasound, I will leave it down below for you:

Normal 7 weeks ultrasound.

At 8 weeks your baby is about the size of a raspberry, in measurements that will be about 2.0 cm long, and the weight will be about 0.04 ounces.


8 weeks pregnant symptoms.

  • Sore breasts: the production of milk on your breast is starting at this point so you may start feeling your boobs bigger, heavier and sore.

  • Constipation: Constipation is a typical symptom in 50% of pregnant women, there are small changes that you can do to ease this symptom, things like drinking more water, eating fiber-rich fruits and veggies and mild to moderate exercise, if there are no risks on your pregnancy, can help you a lot, if nothing helps then talk to your doctor for other remedies.

  • Weird dreams: Is uncertain why this happens but is probably due to your new thoughts and anxieties related to your new pregnancy.

  •  A powerful sense of smell: It can be something totally innocuous or that never bothered you before, but now because of your superhuman-like sense of smell you are sniffing that aroma from miles away, be careful because this symptom can trigger nausea.

  • Morning sickness: I talk about this symptom on my prior post, morning sickness is caused by high levels of hormones in your body, this symptom gets better with time, and you can help yourself with Ginger tea, vitamin B6 and acupuncture.

  • Fatigue: Remember that you are under the effects of many hormones, especially increased levels of progesterone are responsible for making you sleepy and also your body is producing more blood to carry nutrients to your growing baby, therefore, your blood pressure and blood sugar levels are lower, the best remedy for this symptom is REST and SLEEP MORE.

  • Cramps and spotting: mild cramping and pink or brown spotting can be normal however an Ultrasound is always a good idea to rule out miscarriages.

What to expect on your 8 week ultrasound scan:

After obtaining images of Maternal uterus and ovaries, let’s go straight to the fun part… Remember maternal health is a priority and is as important as baby’s health.


Ultrasound image of a fetal pole at 8 weeks 5 days, the measurement is shown in this picture is the Crump-rump length.


At the 8 week scan your baby starts showing arms and legs, and sometimes you can even see movements during the ultrasound.


The black spaces on the baby’s head are the brain still developing, is important to take acid folic at this time and to stay away from addicting habits like smoke and/or drugs, those habits will create addiction on your baby’s brain as well.


Ultrasound image of the doppler on the baby’s heart!!!!

As you can see your 8 week Ultrasound is very exciting, your baby already has lips and nose, is showing arms and legs and you will probably see movements on the ultrasound as well, your baby is still growing and changing at a rapid pace.

Remember that chances of miscarriages are still high at 8 weeks, miscarriages can be due to chromosomal or genetic abnormalities, the causes are not clear however regular visits and ultrasounds will help you to feel more relaxed.

On your first appointment, you can expect labs, your doctor needs to know your blood type, if you are RH negative or positive, CBC ( blood count), and screening for Hepatitis B, STDs, HIV, and certain immunities.

Also on every single visit, you will have to give a urine sample so your glucose and protein levels can be monitored to rule out gestational diabetes and preeclampsia respectively.

OK, guys thanks for staying with me until the end, on my next post I will be talking about 9 week ultrasound, thank you for the love and support on my blog, I will love to have you back…

If you like my post and learn something new today show me some love with a like and a follow!!!

XO Zadi.

What you need to know about normal 7 week ultrasound, pregnancy ultrasounds.

Hi there, welcome back to another post, Today the topic will be “Normal 7 week ultrasound” if you reach this point you are probably full of questions and fears, after all the first trimester is crucial, but relax you are doing fine, at 7 weeks your baby is growing and changing a lot, stay with me for a little longer and you will find out why!!!


At 7 weeks your baby is about the size of a Blueberry, in measurements, your baby should be about 0.50 inches long, from week 6 to week 7 your baby has probably double the size if the growth was appropriate !!!

Also, do you know that at 7 weeks in your baby’s brain 100 new cells are developed per minute, and not only your baby’s brain is becoming more complex but the heart is becoming complex too. Your baby is developing the kidneys, arm and legs are now forming as well.

7 weeks pregnant symptoms.

  • Nausea: Morning sickness may be going strong at 7 weeks of pregnancy, if you expecting twins, morning sickness is probably worse due to highest levels of hormones, but don’t worry it should get better after the first trimester, some moms-to-be finds relieve taking Ginger natural tea or vitamin B-6.

  • Food cravings and/or aversions: You probably find yourself craving for weird foods, same as not wanting to eat foods that you thought was delicious before, don’t worry all of this is normal. It is ok to give in to your cravings and indulge once in a while, but try not to go crazy, and make healthy food choices instead when is possible.

  • Mood swings: Not only your hormones are all over the place but you can be feeling emotional and overwhelmed by the idea that you are pregnant, so don’t worry it will get better soon.

  • Frequent urination: Your uterus at this point even though you don’t look pregnant has doubled in size, also know that your uterus anteriorly is pressing against your Urinary bladder.

  • Acne: Breakouts in multiples areas of your body are due to hormonal changes, you can use certain products to ease the symptoms but please before you use anything check with your doctor if they are safe to use while you are pregnant.

  • Cramping or spotting: Sporadic mild cramping with pink or brown spotting can be normal, after all, your uterus is growing rapidly and your cervix must be sensitive too, however, an Ultrasound is always recommended to Rule out miscarriages.

What to expect on your 7 week ultrasound Scan:


The first assessment of the maternal pelvic anatomy is done on this Ultrasound to Rule out Coexisting fibroids within the uterus next to the pregnancy, I am going to link below the previous posts talking more in deep about Fibroids.

All you need to know about Fibroids.


Secondly, an assessment to the ovaries must be done, Keep in mind the corpus luteal cyst as you can see in this picture is a normal finding, this ovarian cyst is producing hormones to support the pregnancy however is important to Follow up the size of the cyst.

All you need to know about Ovaries, normal hormonal cycles, and common cysts.

And finally the assessment of the pregnancy is done, measurements are obtained on the embryo to correlate Last menstrual period dates if you don’t know your Last menstrual period don’t worry these measurements are accurate enough to generate an Estimated Due Date. This measurement is called Crown-Rump length ( CRL).


And remember very important if your baby can be seen so is the baby’s heart beating!!!!


The gestational sac and Yolk sac has to be check as well to make sure that all the structures are looking normal.

As you can see your 7 week appointment is very exciting, you are carrying a little secret that you are enjoying but you still don’t know what to expect, in this appointment with your Gynecologist expect to have Labs, a Pap Smear if you haven’t had one in a while, as well as an ultrasound to Rule out viability and dates, so on my next post I will continue to talk about 8 week pregnancy with ultrasound pictures, see you around.

XO zadi.

Twin pregnancy, all you need to know. Multiple pregnancies, twin pregnancy ultrasound.

Hey there, welcome back to another post. Today I will be talking about Twin pregnancy ultrasound, I love doing this post because to me personally I love scanning twin pregnancies, so let’s go…

As in any pregnancy, single or multiple the ultrasound protocol is the same, the first ultrasound is performed to get measurements for dating purposes , also the heartbeat should be obtained, checking the yolk sacs, amnion and Chorionicity on twins is essential to know how to proceed with the pregnancy , in case you haven’t seen I will link down below the previous post where I explained the normal protocol for the first scan.

Normal first-trimester ultrasound, scan at 6 weeks of gestation.

Well as you probably know by now being pregnant with one baby is difficult, imagine with 2 or more babies, the risks of complications on multiple pregnancies is a lot higher than single pregnancies.

If you are pregnant with twins you need to know that:

  • Morning sickness is worse due to high levels of hormones in your body.

  • Vaginal spotting and/or cramping is more common during twin pregnancies which means you will be having Ultrasounds more often.

  • Higher chances of having medical conditions like Gestational diabetes, preeclampsia etc.

  • Labor and delivery will be sooner and most likely be by C-section.

Now there are different types of twins


So below I explain the most important types of twin pregnancies seen on ultrasound, I will start with the rarest and most dangerous one which is the MONOAMNIOTIC-MONOCHORIONIC, follow by DIAMNIOTIC-DICHORIONIC, and finally, I will briefly talk about the DIAMNIOTIC-MONOCHORIONIC.

img_3014picture # 1

Ultrasound image of an Early gestation, about 7 weeks, you see the 2 fetuses inside the sac with NO membrane separation which means this is a Monoamniotic-Monochorionic twin pregnancy or Identical twins, this type of twins form after a SPLIT occurs on a fertilized egg, this type of twin shares ONE amniotic sac and ONE placenta.

img_3015Picture # 2img_30171Picture # 3

Ultrasound images on picture #2 and picture #3 are also Monoamniotic-Monochorionic but at a different gestational age,  10 weeks and 11 weeks respectively.

So because Monoamniotic-Monochorionic twin pregnancy shares ONE amniotic sac and ONE placenta, the risks associated with this pregnancy is higher than other twins, some of the risks are listed below:

  • Cord Entanglement: since there is no membrane separation between the babies their umbilical cord could get entangled, cutting off the blood supply to one of the babies.

  • Cord compression: As they share the same sac they might press against the others umbilical cord while making internal movements. Prolonged pressure may cut off blood supply and nutrients to one of the babies resulting in fetal death or weight discrepancies.

  • Twin to Twin Transfusion Syndrome: This syndrome happens when one of the twins receives the majority of the nourishment in the womb, causing the other twin to be undernourished. That is detected on regular scanning based on the physical development of both babies.

  • Preterm labor: always occurs on mono-mono twins due to the high risks on cord entanglement and compression, is usually done by C-section between 34 to 36 weeks, however, some mono-mono can be delivered at 26 weeks if there are other complications.

Other facts about Mono-Mono twin pregnancies:

  • Mono-Mono babies are always the same gender since they originate from the same fertilized egg.

  • Mono-Mono twins are rare, ONLY 1% of twins are mono-mono.

Now let’s talk about DIAMNIOTIC-DICHORIONIC.

img_30131Diamniotic-Dichorionic at 7 weeks.

img_3011Diamniotic-Dichorionic at 9 weeks.

img_3012Diamniotic-Dichorionic at 11 weeks.

The last 3 ultrasound images are Diamniotic-Dichorionic twin pregnancies, This type of  twins can be Monozygotic or Dizygotic which means that can occurs after 2 different eggs are fertilized by 2 different sperms or ONE fertilized egg DIVIDES into 2 blastocysts and Reaches the uterus and is implanted, this type is the most common type of twins about 72 to 80% of all cases.

Complications of Diamniotic-Dichorionic twins:
While the complication rate is still much higher with twins than with a singleton pregnancy, a Diamniotic-Dichorionic pregnancy carries the lowest rate of complications amongst twin pregnancies however some of the complications can include:

*Increased risk of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR): Means that one baby is not growing appropriately compared to the other twin.
*Placental related problems such as increased risk of velamentous cord insertion, marginal cord insertion or placenta previa.


This type of twins is about 20% of all twins, forms after ONE single fertilized egg SPLITS, this type of twin shares ONE placenta but have 2 different Amniotic sacs.

img_3029Ultrasound image that shows SINGLE SHARED placenta seen on the bottom of the picture, clear membrane separation between the babies is seen in the middle.

img_3030Ultrasound image of a mono-di twin pregnancy again showing a SINGLE SHARED placenta that is located on the left side of the picture, you can see also the membrane in the middle of the babies.

So remember that this type of twin shares ONE placenta, so there are complications associated with it:

Potential complications that can occur with this type of pregnancy include:
problems related to abnormal placental vascular anastomoses
*twin to twin transfusion syndrome.
*twin embolization syndrome
*twin reversed arterial perfusion sequence.
*demise of one twin: often associated with some adverse outcome to the other twin.
*Other placental insertion related problems such as increased incidence of velamentous cord insertion and/or increased incidence of marginal cord insertion.

Other types of multiple pregnancies can also occur (Triplets, quadruplets etc.)  the most important purpose of the Ultrasound is identify Chorionicity, one placenta vs two placentas can make the world of the difference.

The ultrasound protocols are always the same for any type of pregnancy.

And remember that being able to grow inside your body one life is precious but being able to grow more than one life at a time is even more precious, as I called it ” the miracle of life”, you are blessed and every baby is a blessing.

OK so this is the most relevant info about TWINS, I will start the weekly scanning on my next post, from week 7 to week 40 of pregnancy with ultrasounds, as usual, see you on my next post.

XO zadi.

Abnormal first trimester ultrasound.

Hey guys, welcome to another post, today I want to briefly talk about the Abnormal first trimester ultrasound before I continue to weekly ultrasounds, as usual, I will be including ultrasound pictures on my post, in case you haven’t seen my previous article about Normal first trimester ultrasound I will link it down below:

Normal first trimester ultrasound, scan at 6 weeks of gestation.

First trimester ultrasound measurements, dating, and guidelines…

Pregnancy failure is a common problem in the first trimester with failure rates approaching 25%. A threatened abortion is defined as bleeding and cramping in the first 20 weeks of pregnancy. Ultrasound plays a key role in evaluating women with threatened abortion since HCG levels do not always correlate with a specific diagnosis.

Subchorionic hematoma or Subchorionic bleedings.




Is the most common sonographic abnormality in the presence of a live embryo. Vaginal bleeding affects 25% of all women during the first trimester. In women whose sonogram shows a Subchorionic hematoma, the outcome of the fetus depends on the size of the hematoma, the mother’s age and the fetus gestational age.

If the Subchorionic hematoma appears in the late first or second trimester the risks for miscarriage, stillbirth, placental abruption or preterm labor are increased.

However small asymptomatic Subchorionic hematoma vs Subchorionic bleeding associated with No other complications can resolve by itself.

Anembryonic pregnancy ( Blighted ovum).


Is a form of failed pregnancy defined as a gestational sac in which the embryo failed to develop. A large gestational sac without the visualized embryo is unequivocal evidence of a failed anembryonic pregnancy.

Embryonic demise and Bradycardia.




The most convincing evidence that pregnancy has failed is the documentation of embryonic demise. As stated previously, all embryos greater than 5 mm in size should demonstrate cardiac activity. Embryonic bradycardia is a poor prognosticator of pregnancy viability and needs follow up. An embryonic heart rate less than 90 beats per minute, in embryos less than 8 weeks is associated with 80% rate of eventual embryonic demise.

Ectopic pregnancy.


Tubal ectopic pregnancy located at the LT adnexa.

The most reassuring sign that an ectopic pregnancy is not present is the sonographic demonstration of a normal intrauterine pregnancy.

Which means that when the HCG levels are 1500 IU or more an intrauterine pregnancy has to be seen, if not the possibility of an Ectopic pregnancy is really high, Follow up with HCG in blood and Ultrasound are highly recommended.

Patients that are in high risk for ectopic pregnancy have:

*History of pelvic inflammatory disease ( PID )

*Previous ectopic pregnancy.


*Tubal surgery.

Transvaginal ultrasound has an accuracy of 90% and should be routinely be used in the evaluation for ectopic pregnancy.

A variety of uterine findings can be seen with ectopic pregnancies. The may be empty or contain endometrial fluid collection, this should not be confused with an intrauterine gestational sac.

The most common adnexal finding is a complex mass which represents hemorrhage. Other adnexal findings included a normal adnexa or a well formed adnexal ring with or without a yolk sac or embryo. The posterior uterine pouch or pouch of Douglas should be carefully investigated since complex peritoneal fluid may be the only finding in 15% of ectopic pregnancies.


OK so I am ending my post here, on the next one I will be talking probably about Twin pregnancies, and the following week I will be going week by week on scanning, if you stay until the end, thanks and I hope you come back…

feel free to comment if you have any questions.

xo zadi.


First trimester ultrasound measurements, dating and guidelines…




Hey there, welcome back to another post of my series designated for ” PREGNANCY”, I wanna dedicate a blog for this topic because is very important, the CORRECT measurements in the first trimester are crucial to have an accurate due date, so here I will explain all you need to know about this.

So if you have the first scan and NO visible intrauterine pregnancy was seen but you have a Positive pregnancy urine test, the doctor will probably do a blood work to check levels of HCG in blood, in case you didn’t read my previous post I will link it below:

All you need to know about early gestation.

In the previous post I explained more in deep about HCG levels in the first trimester and when are you expected to see an intrauterine pregnancy, this topic of HCG is also important on the process of dating your pregnancy and give you an accurate due date.

So assuming that on your first scan only the Gestational SAC was seen which is normal at a 5 week ultrasound, then the gestational sac dimensions are taken and that will give us an idea of how far you are.



Ultrasound image of a gestational sac measuring 5 weeks 1 day.

However is not until we measure the Crown rump length ( CRL ) that the DUE DATE is set, here is why…

The most accurate sonographic measurement correlating with menstrual dates is the CRL, this measurement is the maximum visible length of the embryo, care must be taken not to include the umbilical cord or yolk sac in the CRL measurement.

Embryonic CRL measurement is more accurate than using Last menstrual period dates or physical exam in dating a pregnancy, remember if you suffer from Irregular periods due to PCOS or any other conditions then more likely Ultrasounds measurement are going to be different from your gestational age.


Ultrasound image of CRL measurement.


The left side of the table show length of the embryo in millimeters compared to the gestational age on the bottom.

The guidelines today for dating your pregnancy comparing CRL and menstrual age are listed on the table below, basically if there is a discrepancy of 5 days between the CRL and the gestational age and you are 8 weeks or less, the Due date will be set with the CRL Measurement and so on, take a look on the table…


Ok guys so this is the most important information about Dating your pregnancy , I want to thank you if you stay until the end , next post will be about Abnormal first trimester ultrasound , I will talk about Anembryonic pregnancy or Blighted ovum, Embryonic demise, and a quick review about Ectopic pregnancy and more, I will talk to you next time, if you are learning or enjoying my blog please give me a like and comment.

Remember as soon as we see an embryo we can measure a heartbeat, normal ranges are from 115 to 160 beats per minute, varies thought out the pregnancy, it increases at around 10 weeks to 150 to 175 beats per minute and decreases again approaching to term to 130 beats per minute.

xo zadi.

And remember you got this …. GOOD LUCK!!!!

Normal first trimester ultrasound, scan at 6 weeks of gestation.

HI guys is Zadi, welcome to another post, today I will be talking about Normal first-trimester ultrasound and all you need to know, so stay with me !!!!

OK, so assuming that you have a positive pregnancy test, HCG (  pregnancy hormone ) blood work that confirms pregnancy, next thing is an ultrasound to rule out gestational age, estimated due date, how many babies and also maternal organs are check to rule out Fibroids, ovarian cysts etc..

If you haven’t seen my previous posts about fibroids and ovarian cysts I will link down below for you:

All you need to know about Fibroids.

All you need to know about Ovaries, normal hormonal cycles, and common cysts.

So now back to the post, what are you going to see on the first ULTRASOUND scan ( 6 weeks of gestation )??


Gestational sac: The first structure seen on ultrasound, the gestational sac can be visualized as early as 5 weeks by Transvaginal technique. A normal gestational sac can be round or oval and is located within the fundus or mid portion of the cavity in the uterus.

img_2776Gestational sac within the cavity.

img_2777Ultrasound image of the gestational sac and yolk sac.

Yolk sac: The yolk sac is the first structure visible within the gestational sac. The yolk sac should always be seen when the gestational sac measures greater than 1.0 cm or 10 mm.

A normal yolk sac is round and should measure less than 6 mm. If the yolk sac measures more than 6 mm, is bizarre in shape or is calcified follow up scan is required since most pregnancies with Abnormal yolk sacs will fail.

img_2782Normal looking yolk sac.

img_2787Enlarged yolk sac.

img_2788Calcified yolk sac.

Abnormally Shaped Yolk SacYolk sac with a bizarre shape.

Embryo:  The second structure that becomes visible within the gestational sac is the embryo. Embryonic cardiac activity should always be seen when an embryo measures greater than 5 mm.

A normal fetal heart rate usually ranges from 115 to 160 beats per minute during the first weeks of gestation, It is measurable with ultrasound from around 6 weeks, the normal range varies during gestation, increasing to around 150 to 175 beats per minute at 10 weeks and decreasing to around 130 beats per minute at term.

A heartbeat of 100 BPM or less In the first ultrasound may indicate a pregnancy that is going to fail however a follow up is always recommended.


Ultrasound image of an Embryo at about 6 weeks of gestation.

Membranes: The amnion grows against the chorion and the membranes eventually fuse, usually by 17 weeks.


Most COMMON and usually harmless cause of vaginal bleeding on the first trimester is Subchorionic bleedings, it resolves by itself however precautions have to be follow.


Ultrasound image of subchorionic bleeding.

And remember if you see an image like this one:

you guess it !!!! YOU ARE HAVING TWINS…

img_2790Ultrasound image of Fraternal twins. ( I will explain this in another post )

img_2791Ultrasound image of Identical twins.

If is more than 2 babies GOOD LUCK!!!! LOL

All ready so this was Normal ultrasound at 6 weeks, next post I will be talking about Normal pregnancy Dating, protocol, and guidelines, how we measure the baby to have an accurate due date, this and more so I will see you next time, next post on Thursday, see you there…

zadi xo

All you need to know about early gestation.

Hello my friends , its zadi here with another post, this time we starting already with Pregnancy , let me guess ?? you did a pregnancy test and shows a positive pregnancy, eyyy that’s awesome now pay attention because I will walk you through all the important things that you need to know before going to your first appointment with your Gynecologist.

First of all I want you to know that there are several periods before we even see a viable pregnancy on Ultrasound, Those periods are:

Ovarian period: its 1 to 2 weeks after the first day of your last period , this is the period when ovarian follicles mature.

Conception period: its 3 to 5 weeks after the first day of your last period , this is the period where fertilization occurs .


Embryonic period: its 6 to 10 weeks after the first day of your last period , is in this periods where a viable pregnancy is seen on ultrasound at about week 6 , this is the period where Embryo forms and the major organs develops.


Fetal period : its 11 to 12 weeks after the first day of your last period , all major fetal development is already done and this period is all about fetal growth.

Fist trimester of pregnancy is defined as the 13 weeks following the first day of the last menstrual period (LMP).

Hormone measurements ( HCG ) : Urine pregnancy test can detect the presence of HCG at the level above 25 IU/L which corresponds to day 24 of a regular 28 day cycle.

In normal pregnancy serum HCG levels double approximately every 2 days and it is done with a blood test.

Once the HCG levels are above 1000-1500 IU a vaginal ultrasound usually identifies the presence of an intrauterine pregnancy.

An Ectopic pregnancy is suspected if the HCG does NOT DOUBLE in 2-3 days. If NO pregnancy is seen in the uterus by week 5 with an HCG levels of 1500 UI or more.

Now Let me talk a little about Miscarriages.

Miscarriages occurs approximately on 20% of early pregnancies.

Typical miscarriages symptoms are: Vaginal bleeding, abdominal / pelvic pain.

However some miscarriages are asymptomatic.

Risk factors for early pregnancy miscarriages are:

Previous pregnancy losses.

Infertility treatments.

Miscarriages are classified in 3 different major categories:

Missed Abortion or Miss AB: Retention of gestational sac within the uterus following embryonic or fetal death, Absence of cardiac activity is detected on Ultrasound.

img_2591 Ultrasound image of a gestational sac and fetal pole still seen within the cavity , The measurements of the fetal pole are usually smaller than the gestational age and NO heart beat is identified on Ultrasound.

Incomplete Abortion: Gestational sac is not seen on the uterus however the cavity still appears to be thick and blood clots and/or retained products of conception are still visualized inside the cavity.

img_2586 Ultrasound image of the cavity of the uterus showing No gestational sac and/or fetal pole but still some fluid , blood clots and debri are seen inside.

Complete Abortion: its diagnosed when the endometrial cavity appears thin and clean of products of conception after the bleeding.

img_2587 Ultrasound image of the cavity that appears to be clean and thin.

Ectopic pregnancy is defined as implantation of the fertilized ovum outside the uterine cavity.

img_2582 Ultrasound image on an Ectopic pregnancy, the uterus was seen to the Left and the Left ovary to the right of the image and in the middle the ectopic pregnancy was clearly seen, now in some cases ectopic pregnancies can appears as a rounded mass instead of a sac with a fetus inside.

Ok so this covers important aspects of the first visit , on early gestation Ultrasound can not see a viable pregnancy inside the uterus unless you are 6 weeks or more, the patients usually don’t know and get nervous when the pregnancy is not seeing on the first scan, on the next post I will start  covering Normal first trimester ultrasound , I hope to see you there, as usual thank you so much.

XO zadi.

All you need to know about Ovaries, normal hormonal cycles and common cysts.

Hi there, is zadi welcome to my Blog, today I will be covering everything related to Normal ovary, Hormones, and common cysts, All you need to know about ovulation. As you probably know the ovulation process is the beginning of a beautiful pregnancy, so if you want to learn something fascinating today keep looking.

Normal hormonal cycle and ovulation.

Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) is found in the first half of the cycle or follicular phase, this hormone stimulates the growth of multiples follicles in the ovary, however only one ovarian follicle emerges at day 9 of the cycle, that follicle is known as Dominant follicle, other follicles on the ovary stop growing and then eventually regrets. The Luteinizing hormone (LH) surge from the pituitary gland on about day 14 and causes ovulation from that single dominant ovarian follicle. During the second half of the cycle or luteal phase, after the follicle is released from the dominant follicle the corpus luteum is formed, this structure releases hormones, mainly progesterone and some estrogen. Those two ovarian hormones prepare the endometrium for possible implantation of a fertilized egg.

So here is a summary:

*First hypothalamus Produce Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone or GnRH.

*Second Anterior Pituitary Produce FSH and LH.

*And finally Ovarian follicles start producing Estrogen and the corpus luteum starts producing Progesterone.

All hormones are crucial on the monthly menstrual cycle, the ovarian Hormones finally prepares the endometrium for possible implantation.


More information about ovarian follicles.

Dominant follicle.

*A single ovarian follicle that enlarges between day 9 and day 14 on the cycle.

*The diameter increases from 1 cm to 2 cm during that time.

*When the diameter increases to 2 cm ovulation is expected to happen within the next 24 hours.

*Following ovulation a small amount of free fluid could be seen at the pelvis.


Ultrasound image of a Dominant Follicle.

Hemorrhagic ovarian cysts.

*A hemorrhagic cyst develops from a follicle or a corpus luteum by spontaneous rupture of blood vessels into the cystic cavity.

*This type of cyst contains blood clots or fibrin strands.

*This cyst will usually change its internal appearance and/or diminish in size.

*Bleeding within cystic lesions strongly suggest Benign nature.


Ultrasound image of a Hemorrhagic cyst.

Corpus luteum cyst ( most important cyst if you desire a pregnancy)

*After ovulation, the empty cavity of the ruptured follicle is gradually filled by luteal cells.

*This cyst is usually less than 2.5 cm in diameter however it can grow up to 8 cm in diameter, in this case, if a pregnancy occurs a follow-up Ultrasound is recommended to check the size of the cyst to prevent an Ovarian Torsion, but the pregnancy should be fine.

*This cyst is in charge of producing Progesterone, an important hormone for preparing the Endometrium for a possible pregnancy.



Ultrasound image of Corpus luteal cyst.

A small summary about abnormal ovarian cyst.

Theca lutein cyst is a hormone related lesion that may develop because of an abnormal/sudden increased of Human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG), This can be related to normal causes like Multiples pregnancies (TWINS etc..), but can also be related to Abnormal diseases like:

*Hydatiform Mole.


*Maternal fetal RH incompatibility.


*Some autoimmune diseases.


Ultrasound image of Theca lutein cysts.

Cause of infertility related to the ovaries

Polycystic ovaries or PCOS.

Polycystic ovarian disease or PCOS is also known as choric anovulation syndrome, wherein dysfunctional hormonal cycles lead to chronic anovulation usually beginning at menarche. Clinical manifestation can include :




*Abnormal periods.

With PCOS an increase of LH, Testosterone, and Androstenedione is usually found.

On patients with isolated Infertility caused by PCOS a medical treatment with Clomiphene citrate to induce ovulation can solve the problem.


Ultrasound images of PCOS.

As you can see many things has to occur for a pregnancy to happen.

How can you know if you are ovulating?

well, the most important signs of Ovulation are:

*A slight rise in basal body temperature.

*Wet and slippery vaginal discharge that has the appearance of egg whites.

* Slightly increased in sexual desire.

Functional cysts are usually harmless, rarely cause symptoms and often disappears on their own within 2 or 3 menstrual cycles.

Other types of cysts that are not related to menstrual cycles are:

Dermoid cysts: Also known as Teratomas, these types of cysts can contain tissue, such as hair, skin or teeth, because they form from embryonic cells. They are rarely cancerous.

Cystadenomas: These develop on the surface of the ovary and might be filled with watery or a mucous material.

Endometrioma: These develop as a result of a condition known as ENDOMETRIOSIS which is when endometrial cells grow outside of the uterus.

Paraovarian cyst: A cyst that is found near the fallopian tubes or the ovaries, contains a defined membrane, they can go on their own or has to be surgically removed.

img_25221  Dermoid cyst.

img_25231 Cystadenoma benign.

img_2524   Endometrioma cyst.

paraovarian cyst  Paraovarian cyst.

The most remarkable complications of large ovarian cysts can be:

Ovarian torsion or Cyst Ruptured.

OK so this concludes Ovaries, I hope you enjoy my post and I want to encourage you to always check with your Gynecologist to Rule out any problems if you are not getting pregnant easily, keep in mind all women are different. I will see you in my next post, I will officially start pregnancy.

See you next time XO Zadi.

Abnormalities of the Endometrium.

Hi guys, I am back again with another Post. This time I am covering Abnormalities of the Endometrial cavity, and this is in preparation for a series I’m creating called,” ON THE WAY TO GET PREGNANT”. The abnormalities on the Uterine cavity are crucial on the process of getting pregnant because of possible Miscarriages or Infertility.

The last post I covered Fibroids and we spoke about Submucosal fibroids. This can be a cause for miscarriages or infertility on the first trimester. I will link that post down below for you.

All you need to know about Fibroids.

OK so we start on the new topic here:

Abnormalities of the Endometrium.


  • Benign Endometrial polyps.

Benign endometrial polyps occur in about 10% of women and they may cause significant vaginal bleeding. These polyps contain Endometrial glands, Fibrous stroma, and Blood vessels and they may be sessile or pedunculated, they may be small or large in size.

img_2459      Endometrial Polyp within the cavity.

Endometrial polyps are most often Benign as mention before however they may be cancerous or develop into cancer if they are not treated, Hormonal factors play a role in polyps, Polyps can affect all women but are more frequent on women between the age of 40 to 55.

Most polyps Should be removed because of the small risk of cancer, They can be removed by a procedure called Hysteroscopy or Dilatation and curettage ( D & C) where a Biopsy is also done to Rule out Malignancy.

To have a better assessment on small endometrial polyps and/or small submucosal Fibroids most of the time a Sonohystogram is ordered to make a clear diagnosis.

img_2458       Sonohystogram is the procedure where through a thin catheter Saline Solution is injected into the cavity to open it up, so everything is clearly evaluated.


Big polyp within the cavity.

img_2467 Blood flow within the polyp, this is known as the Polyp Feeding Vessel.

OK so for my Postmenopausal Followers here are 2 other Endometrial Abnormalities to be aware of.

Endometrial Hyperplasia:


Thick Heterogeneous endometrial cavity with cystic changes inside.

Endometrial Hyperplasia is Often related to chronic Estrogen Stimulation, On Ultrasound is seen as Thick Endometrial cavity with Cystic changes.

Abnormal symptoms: Premenopausal, perimenopausal or Postmenopausal women with Abnormal Vaginal Bleeding and thick endometrial cavity measuring 0.5 cm or more. An Endometrial Biopsy is required for confirming the diagnosis.

And Last but certainly not least Endometrial carcinoma.


Most Adenocarcinomas of the Endometrium ( 90% ) arise in postmenopausal women. It is the most common Gynecological malignancy in North America.

Ultrasound Findings are A thick endometrial cavity measuring 0.5 cm or more and Increased Blood Flow within the cavity , a biopsy is required to confirm the diagnosis.

So this is the summary of Endometrial Abnormalities, Next post we will talk about Most common types of Ovarian cysts, leave a comment below if you have any question, Thank you very much if you stay until the end and I hope you enjoy.

Zadi XO.

All you need to know about Fibroids.


Fibroids: Clinical information.

1. Fibroids are the most common Benign uterine abnormality encounter in women these days.

2. Women often experience menstrual problems such as abnormal periods and/or painful periods.

3. Depending on the location fibroids can cause pressure on the pelvis and the bladder causing urinary frequency.

4. Depending on the location they may cause infertility as well.



  1. Fibroids are composed of smooth muscles and connective tissue.

2. They may contain calcifications.

3. During pregnancy, fibroids might grow rapidly due to increased blood flow on the uterus.

4. A rapid fibroid growth might lead to infarction and degeneration causing significant pain.

Fibroids are classified by the location.

  1. Subserous Fibroids: These project to the uterine serosa which is the outer layer of the uterus. They are problematic when they are large and indenting surrounding organs.

  2. Pedunculated or exophytic Fibroids: This is the type of fibroid that is located entirely outside the uterus. They must be connected to the uterus by a stalk-like growth called peduncle.

  3. Intramural Fibroids: Those fibroids are predominantly located within the Myometrium ( uterine muscle ). They rarely lead to significant clinical problems unless they are large >5cm.

  4. Submucosal or Submucous Fibroids: These are the most clinically important fibroids, which account for only 5% of all uterine fibroids. Small and Medium Submucosal fibroids cause classic symptoms like Abnormal and Painful periods and more importantly, these are the fibroids that can cause Infertility. Submucosal fibroids can be removed from the cavity with a Procedure called Hysteroscopy.

Classification System used by hysteroscopic surgeons for submucous fibroids.

Type 0: Entirely within the cavity.

Type 1: Mostly within the cavity ( >50% of fibroid within the endometrial cavity.

Type 2: Mostly outside the cavity ( <50% of fibroid located outside the cavity within the myometrium.

      Type 2 of submucosal fibroids are NOT considered for hysteroscopy resection.

If the Fibroids cannot be Removed with a Hysteroscopy then a Myomectomy will be necessary.

img_2429Retroverted Uterus / Subserosal Fibroid / Transvaginal scan.


Anteverted Uterus / Pedunculated Fibroid / Transabdominal scan.


Anteverted uterus / Intramural fibroid / Transabdominal scan.


Anteverted Uterus / Submucosal fibroid / Transabdominal scan.


The last image represents the various degree of Submucosal Fibroids.


Well this resumes the most important aspects of fibroids, on my next post I will be talking about Abnormalities of the endometrium ( cavity), thank you for staying until the end.


XO zadi.



Normal female anatomy and how it is seen on ultrasound.



The size and position of the uterus vary with age, menstrual cycle, and parity. On ultrasound measurements, the Normal size of the uterus is from 7 cm to 9 cm in patients with multiple pregnancies, and about 4 cm to 5 cm wide.

The uterus is divided into three parts: the fundus, the body and the cervix.

The uterine cavity is lined by the endometrium which is formed by a mucous membrane. The endometrium undergoes monthly cyclical changes, this process is called menstrual cycle , this cycle occurs in response to hormonal stimulation and in preparation for an implantation in case a fertilized egg gets to the cavity, The uterus is suspended in the middle of the pelvic cavity by the broad ligament that anchors it to the pelvic sidewalls.

There are 2 different Normal variation of Uterus called Anteverted and Retroverted, is a genetic trace and both uterus are completely normal to carry a pregnancy.

img_2212Transvaginal scan / longitudinal view of the uterus.


Transabdominal scan / longitudinal view of the uterus.

fallopian Tubes.

There is one tube on each side, connecting the ovaries to the uterus, its length measures about 10 cm. The lateral end is closely adjacent to the medial side of the ovaries where is expanded and fimbriated.

Functions of the Tubes.

  • to facilitate the transport and provide nutrients to the ova and spermatozoa.
  • to act as the site for fertilization, the process that occurs specifically at the ampullary portion.
  • to transport the zygote (fertilized egg) into the uterine cavity and to provide nutrients on the way.

Note: Fallopian tubes are not seen on ultrasound unless there is fluid or blood inside which is considered abnormal.


The almond shape glands, one on each side, vary in size and position with age, menstrual cycle, parity, and degree of distention of the surrounding organs.

The ovary is made of 2 parts, central medulla, and surrounding cortex. The cortex contains the follicles in various stages of development.



Bilateral OVARIES containing follicles.


So This concludes the basic NORMAL parts of the Pelvic organs on the female anatomy and how they look on ultrasound, in my next POST I will begin to cover pathologies on each of the organs, so perhaps you like to come back for more information.

If you have any question even though is not related to this topic feel free to leave your comments, I will reply very soon !!!!

I hope you enjoy and learn something today, thanks.

Welcome to my first blog.

A quick and easy view to understanding Ultrasound.

Sonography means imaging with Ultrasound. Diagnostic sonography is a medical two dimensional and a three-dimensional tool that takes images of the body using high-frequency sound waves to create images inside the human body.

Ultrasound Imaging is an interactive process involving the sonographer, patient, transducer, machine etc.


Ultrasound provides a noninvasive way of looking inside the body with sound waves, NO RADIATION IS INVOLVED.

Anatomic imaging with ultrasound is achieved with a pulse-echo technique.

Pulses of ultrasound are generated by an instrument called TRANSDUCER and sent into the patient’s body, once there they produce echoes at the organ boundaries and within the surrounding tissue, these echoes then return to the transducer where they are detected and displayed on a monitor on a variety of shades of gray.


The role of a Sonographer.

The sonographer is the professional that works under the supervision of a doctor and is trained to use Ultrasound Machine to view and interpret images with sound waves for the diagnosis and treatment of Medical conditions.

An Obstetric Ultrasound scan is performed to view the fetus in the womb to determine viability, number of fetuses, size, weight, fetal position, along with any other potential problems with the fetus. A Gynecologic ultrasound scan is performed for many reasons but is targeted to check your pelvic organs like cervix, uterus, endometrial cavity and bilateral ovaries to rule out pathologies.

The maternal organs are also checked to ensure the success of the pregnancy during an Obstetric ultrasound.

Other Routine duties for Ultrasound Sonographers.

In addition to main job of scanning patients a sonographer also have to maintain logs of patients, take care of billing procedures, perform routine maintenance of the machines. Safety and sanitary procedures are performed after each test on the equipment and maintaining supplies and consulting with supervisors and physicians are also on the daily routines.

As you can see my job is very interesting and rewarding, full of responsibilities but I wouldn’t change it, on my next post I will start covering Female pathologies. I will create a series of blogs on the process to get pregnant, Follow me around, see you again.